Commentary to USDA Report of the Dietary Guidelines, ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias and European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice1-3 Overview of scientific recommendations The last 15 years have seen a sharp drop in death rates from coronary heart disease in many countries of the developed world, the United States of America and several European countries in particular. Despite these welcome advances, coronary heart disease is still a major cause of death, illness and disability in population worldwide which justifies focusing upon preventive medicine. It is common knowledge that eating habits influence the development of risk factors for coronary heart disease, i.e. overweight, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The current international dietary recommendations particularly emphasize the following items1-3 a calorie balanced diet for maintenance of normal weight and weight reduction in overweight persons, respectively, a diet which is nutrient dense an healthy eating pattern, e.g. traditional mediterranean diet (figure 1).   figure 1   Detailed recommendations9-16  Maintenance of normal body weight or weight reduction in overweight persons Overweight is a substantial risk factor for the development of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and gout. Coronary heart disease and stroke are more common in people who are overweight. Overweight predisposes to breast and colon cancer. Overweight may induce gallstones and cause degeneration of the joint. Abundant consumption of plant based foods or carbohydrate rich sources with a high content of fibre (approximately 30g/day) It is recommended to consume daily of at least 200g fruits (2-3 portions) and 200g vegetables (2-3 portions). Dietary pattern high in fruits, vegetables, whole grain products, legumes and nuts have been associated with a decreased risk of CHD. A high-carbohydrate, high fibre diet is rich in vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, micronutrients and low in saturated fatty acids. A high fibre intake […]